Friday, February 7, 2020

Language Evolution and Syntactic Theory Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 8500 words

Language Evolution and Syntactic Theory - Essay Example Category one and two combine when considering that the "universal characteristics of language may be so because they are aspects that make it more easily acquirable."2 The evolutionary nature of language is a new category of investigation that attempts to determine what occurred in our ancestral lineage that gave rise to a form of communication that is distinct from other species. This category involves genetics, paleontology, and archaeology. However, whereas these studies benefit from a rich fossil record, evolutionary linguistics suffers from a lack of evidence. To overcome these shortcomings, linguists often make use of studies in the four categories already discussed. However, Kinsella's research is unique in that it will not rely on the four categories. Instead, she utilizes evidence from evolutionary studies that will shed a critical light on the theory of linguistics. The essential argument Kinsella makes is that this research is a step in developing a more unified theory of linguistics. This is much like psycholinguistics or neurolinguistics before it, which incorporate diverse disciplines in founding new conclusions. Kinsella frames the current discussion on language within syntactic theory. She criticizes these theories for relying on theories that are based only in linguistics and don't incorporate multi-disciplinary perspectives in their analysis. She contends that syntactic theory needs to be critiqued not merely as a means of recording observable data. In addition, syntactic theory must also be critiqued as a theory of language that must be consistent with theories in other fields. While she acknowledges that there are many competing syntactic theories, the research focuses on the Minimalist Program and contrasts it with theories in evolutionary biology to test its validity. It's notable that the analysis focuses the validity of the linguistic side and not the biological side. This seems to be due to the foundational role evolutionary biology plays in the Minimalist Program. Also, there is a continued view of linguistic philosophy as a 'soft' science. Kinsella is vague in distinguishing the exact specifications of the Minimalist Program. She writes that, "...syntactic theory tells usthat the grammatical structure of language is the mediator between signal and meaning"3 and references Chomsky as privileging the internal aspects of language over the external. While she discusses the MP's emphasis on creativity within syntactic structures, it seems that she is ultimately positioning it as a strongly internal theory of languag

Wednesday, January 29, 2020

The Gothic form of writing Essay Example for Free

The Gothic form of writing Essay The Gothic form of writing is generally held to have started in the Eighteenth century with the publication of Castle of Otranto by Horace Walpole. This form of writing developed over the next two centuries, utilising the realms of the supernatural and the fantastic, while creating an atmosphere of gloom and decay. Edgar Allan Poe was the founder of the modern detective story and one of the greatest exponents of the Gothic novel. His Tales of the Grotesque and Arabesque published in 1840, included perhaps the epitome of the Gothic genre, The Fall of the House of Usher. In order to assess whether the passage given is typical of the Gothic and detective novel, it is necessary to examine both The Fall of the House of Usher and The Murder in the Rue Morgue. The Gothic novel exists both in a dark and unreal world and a world of normality, encouraging a co-existence between the natural and the unnatural. As the story of The Fall of the House of Usher unfolds, the mood and tone of the novel are enhanced by the bleak, isolated and ominous description of the house and its surroundings. This conveys to the reader the sensation that a mystery is about to take place, while also allowing one to become mindful of the pervasive feeling of trepidation and suspense. As the narrator draws nearer to the gloomy and forbidding home of the Ushers, he is unnerved by the house and its surroundings. He tries to allay these fears by maintaining that the unnatural and portentous aura that the house and its environs possess, are (III: pg 138) caused by natural phenomena. Gothic writers were concerned with the mind, the causation of madness and the borderline nature of sanity and insanity. J. Porte states that Edgar Allan Poe designs his tales as to show his narrators limited comprehension of their own problems and states of mind. (IV: pg 160). The narrator in the story seems to be the epitome of rationality and has no desire to loose his sanity. The world he is a part of is the world of common sense and pragmatism, (IV: pg 163), but this world is traumatised by the sensations he feels towards the House of Usher and its surroundings as he approaches it, and he can not grapple with the shadowy fancies that crowded upon him.(III: pg 138). He therefore acknowledges in true Gothic style that the supernatural effect created by the house has an impact on ones unconscious, creating a capacity for sorrowful impression. Although this notion may be forthcoming from a first impression, such impressions can be incorrect. The narrator believes however, that it is the mind that dictates ones feelings and senses, (III: pg. 138) and concludes that any investigation of the manipulative powers of these effects over the mind is beyond our depth.(III: pg. 139) This he feels is a a mystery all insoluble and states that if the house and its surroundings did not look so depressing and did not cause him to suffer a sense of insufferable gloom(III: pg 138), then this feeling of forbidding would not be so transparent in his mind. The Murders in the Rue Morgue deals with the seemingly mysterious and puzzling murders of two women in their apartment. The complexity and unusual circumstances of their deaths leaves the police completely baffled by the case and someone of supposedly superior intellect and mental acumen is needed to solve the murders. Dupin the detective and his companion the narrator, use analysis to solve the case. There are no shadowy fancies(III: pg 138), as in The Fall of the House of Usher, everything is calculated and logical. The fundamental difference between the passage from the House of Usher and Poes detective story is that, in the former the mystery is all insoluble, while exploring the restricted subjects of incest and the mind. In the latter however, the mystery is solved and there is no exploration of anything other than logic, which suggests that the author may be conforming to society and submitting to the bourgeoisie community and therefore creating a typically American detective novel. (II: pg 497.) The eerie way in which the room is locked leaving no signs of entry or exit, and the way in which the murders are committed, leaves the reader to assume the possibility that the murders are of supernatural element. This consideration is dismissed by Dupin, who maintains that The doers of the deed were material (III: pg 209), and that he did not believe in preternatural events. (III: pg 209) This is in complete opposition to The Fall of the House of Usher, where the narrator, as he first comes into contact with the house and its surroundings, is under the impression that here is something unnatural. The descriptive way in which the passage from The Fall of the House of Usher suggests that by changing the particulars of the scene(III: pg 139), the effect that the house imposes on the narrator can be changed. This reflection is not seen by Dupin in The murders in the Rue Morgue, there is no sense of sorrowful impression. (III: pg 138). To Dupin the murders are merely peculiar (III: pg 206), he is unattached and uninvolved in the murders, apart from the excitement that they generate. Both the narrators are however, sympathetic to the plight of the victims and show compassion, but they are unable to interfere in any of the proceedings and merely retell their account of the events. In order to be considered as part of the Gothic genre the passage from The Fall of the House of Usher and the story, The Murders in the Rue Morgue, have to follow certain criteria. The dark and forbidding features which highlight the supernatural countenance of the The Fall of the House of Usher are certainly conducive to the Gothic novel. Also the perception of mystery and suspense created as the story delves into the hidden and sublime world of the subconscious, while exploring hidden agendas that supposedly should not be discussed in decent society, certainly qualify the story as belonging to the Gothic style. The Murders in the Rue Morgue, while following the same pattern of using horror, mystery and a sense of pervasive gloom does not however, seem to be able to align itself with this genre. There is no supernatural element involved. The story is recounted with rational explanation and it is logic that is used to solve the crime. This means the story is explained as it develops, rather than it developing by itself, as The Fall of the House of Usher does, thereby allowing it to remain enveloped in the Gothic shroud of mystery and suspense.

Tuesday, January 21, 2020

Concession in Amy Tans Joy Luck Club Essay -- Joy Luck Club Essays

Concession in Amy Tan's Joy Luck Club "Sometimes you have to lose pieces to get ahead," explains the narrator of "The Rules of the Game," a lost piece from Amy Tan's novel The Joy Luck Club that has arguably achieved greater readership through its appearance in numerous anthologies (505). "The Rules of the Game" pivots around the concept that one may triumph in a win-lose situation through a concession. Narrator Waverly Jong recounts applications of this idea as she grows into adolescence in her Chinese-American community. From her adventures in the local marketplace to her romps on the chess battlefield, Waverly's prizes while asserting her concede-to-win strategy include physical objects and abstractions, the intangibility of the latter implying that one's examination of this story must consider terms like conflict, win, and loss in the broadest sense possible. With this in mind, Tan's "The Rules of the Game" explores the determinants behind wins and losses, ultimately suggesting that the most effective way to achieve victory is through an act of concession. Tan introduces this idea as a vague proverb rattled by Waverly's mother that Waverly bevels into sharp clarity by her involvement in situations of conflict that eventually demonstrate the veracity of her mother's words. The first conflict of "The Rules of the Game" materializes when Waverly accompanies her mother to the marketplace as a young child and experiences a loss. "Bite back your tongue," scolded my mother when I cried loudly, yanking her hand toward the store that... ... in the struggle to win. In short, Tan presents several conflicts that investigate the factors in win-lose situations, each conflict reiterating the notion that one must forego a triviality to outmaneuver his opponent to victory. This abstraction appears immediately in the story in an abstruse manner but is eventually clarified by evaluating the consistencies of the sundry conflicts. The repetition of these conflicts with similar outcomes involving (or not involving) concessions elucidates the idea that an act of concession is assuredly the most foolproof approach to triumph in a struggle. Work Cited Tan, Amy. "The Rules of the Game." The Vintage Book of Contemporary American Short Stories. Ed. Tobias Wolff. New York: Random House, Inc., 1994. 497-508.

Monday, January 13, 2020

Love and Power in Marriage as Portrayed in A Doll House

A Doll’s House by Ibsen has become a starting moment for a new step in the development of drama genre. Prior to this play, Ibsen’s contemporary drama consisted of behavior plays and historical theatre. But A Doll’s House added a new aspect to the problems highlighted by the contemporary drama. Ibsen in his play introduced a crucial examination of social issues, and the nature of Victorian marriage. By revealing the background of Helmer marriage Ibsen makes the intimate private and stands up for women identity. Revealing the secrecy of marriage Ibsen overturns the customary roles of a woman and a man as they were regarded by the society before. Marriage in Victorian Society Ibsen provides Nora with the new role different from the role of wife and mother that was an innovation for the contemporary society. As it was customary to refer to woman’s identity in the context of her marital role, Ibsen’s play appeared as a protest, and this play is still regarded as a feminist writing, although the author denied it. The author touched a few intertwined themes, but marital relations are one of the most crucial issues, referred to in the play. Victorian age was cruel towards human identity in general, let alone woman’s individuality. The economical background buried the interest to the individuality within the society. During the period after the French Revolution the thirst for individual freedom was replaced by the economic power, and as the result, women were deprived of the power more than ever. Nora’s changed attitude towards her marriage is not just a problem in the relations between a husband and wife; it is the symbol of the most serious problems of bourgeois values of the middle class. By rejecting the marriage, Nora also denies these values, thus demonstrating the opposition between identity and economical stability: â€Å"I should try to become a human being† (Act Three) A Doll’s House reflects Ibsen’s own relation to the problem of woman’s self-expression. He was sure that women could express themselves, their individuality but in a real life woman’s role in marriage came to a sacrifice. Neither husbands nor society treated women as equals with their spouses. The scene of Torvald being afraid of his employers believing that he had been influenced by his wife is a perfect illustration of the relation to women in Victorian society. Marriage in Victorian society became a kind of a social trap, worse for woman than for men. Divorce was not forbidden, but it was accompanied by such a strong social ban that it could ever be regarded as the possible way to resolve the problems in family life. That’s why Torvald shows his inner weakness by his desire to pretend that he and Nora had a happy family, rather than bear the social antagonism: â€Å"From this moment happiness is not the question; all that concerns us is to save the remains, the fragments, the appearance – † (Act Three) On the contrary, Nora, as the symbol of woman, who wasn’t treated as a powerful identity, shows her force by her serious intentions in finding her individuality. Nora feels a fragility of love, but she doesn’t give up and feels the power to build a new happy life instead of her unhappy marriage. Love and Power in the Marriage of Torvald and Nora Nora, who at the beginning was displayed as a happy woman full of love and devoted to her family, realizes that that her happiness is just her dream, but not reality. Thus, she and her husband exchange their roles – Nora is strong enough to face the reality, while her husband is afraid of everything that may damage his habitual life. Nora understands that she was treated like a child used for amusement. The men around her, her husband and her father wanted to see her helpless, seeing her only mission in serving them: â€Å"I have existed merely to perform tricks for you, Torvald. But you wanted it like that. You and father have committed a great sin against me. It is your fault that I have made nothing of my life. Our home has been nothing but a playroom. I have been your doll-wife, just as at home I was father's doll-child; and here the children have been my dolls.† (Act Three) This is how the concept and picture of marriage changes as the plot of the play goes. At the beginning of the play Nora and her husband seem to be a happy family, a husband and a wife who love each other. However, this happiness and love are built on a lie. Nora pretends that she is helpless without Torvald’s protection and power: I would never dream of doing anything you didn’t want me to† and â€Å"I never get anywhere without your help† (Act One), while the reader and spectator knows that she has already rescued Torvald’s life, and Nora’s words acquires dramatically ironical nature. When Mrs. Linde asks Nora if he ever reveals her secret about the loan, Nora shows her awareness of Torvald’s real attitude to her as to a beautiful doll, which has to amuse him: â€Å"Yes – some day, perhaps, after many years, when I am no longer as pretty as I am now. Don't laugh at me! I mean, of course, when Torvald is no longer as devoted to me as he is now; when my dancing and dressing-up and reciting have palled on him then it may be a good thing to have something in reserve.† (Act One) Conclusion As the play starts, Nora makes an impression of a weak and powerless woman, whose life is fully devoted to her family life, while Torvald seems to be the personification of power and domination. Their relations are set against the life story of Mrs. Linde, who at first denied her strong love to gain power and financial security. But by the end of the play the situation changes, Nora finds herself and her individuality although loses her love, and Mrs. Linde turns back to her true feelings. The problems shown with the help of characters’ interaction are not resolved by the author. Ibsen demonstrates the conflicts, but does not give any ways out. He just offers the possibilities, offering the readers and spectators to find their own viewpoint and solution. Related article: â€Å"My Ideal Wife† References Ibsen H. (1991) A Doll's House, Tram. W. Archer. London               

Saturday, January 4, 2020

What Is a Polynuclear Aromatic Hydrocarbon

A polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbon is a hydrocarbon made up of fused aromatic ring molecules. These rings share one or more sides and contain delocalized electrons. Another way to consider PAHs is molecules made by fusing two or more benzene rings. Polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbon molecules contain only carbon and hydrogen atoms. Also Known As: PAH, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon, polyaromatic hydrocarbon Examples There are numerous examples of polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons. Typically, several different PAHs are found together. Examples of these molecules include: anthracenephenanthrenetetracenechrysenepyrene (note: benzo[a]pyrene was the first carcinogen to be discovered)pentacenecorannulenecoroneneovalene Properties Polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons are lipophilic, nonpolar molecules. They tend to persist in the environment because PAHs are not very soluble in water. While 2- and 3-ring PAHs are somewhat soluble in aqueous solution, the solubility decreases nearly logarithmically as molecular mass increases.  2-, 3-, and 4-ring PAHs are sufficiently volatile to exist in the gas phases, while larger molecules exist as solids. Pure solid PAHs may be colorless, white, pale yellow, or pale green. Sources PAHs are organic molecules that form from a variety of natural and anthropogenic reactions. Natural PAHs form from forest fires and volcanic eruptions. The compounds are numerous in fossil fuels, such as coal and petroleum. Man contributes PAHs by burning wood and by the incomplete combustion of fossil fuels. The compounds occur as a natural consequence of cooking food, particularly when food is cooked at a high temperature, grilled, or smoked. The chemicals are released in cigarette smoke and from burning waste. Health Effects Polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons are extremely important because they are associated with genetic damage and diseases. Also, the compounds persist in the environment, leading to increased problems over time. PAHs are toxic to aquatic life. In addition to toxicity, these compounds are often mutagenic, carcinogenic, and teratogenic. Prenatal exposure to these chemicals is associated with lowered IQ and childhood asthma. People get exposed to PAHs from breathing contaminated air, eating food that contains the compounds, and from skin contact. Unless a person works in an industrial setting with these chemicals, exposure tends to be long-term and low-level, so there arent medical treatments to address the effects. The best defense against health effects from PAH exposure is to become aware of situations that elevate risk: breathing smoke, eating charred meat, and touching petroleum products. PAHs Classified as Carcinogens The Environmental Protection Agency has identified seven polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons as likely human carcinogens, or cancer-causing agents: benzo[a]anthracenebenzo[a]pyrenebenzo[b]fluoranthenebenzo[k]fluoranthenechrysenedibenzo(a,h)anthraceneindeno(1,2,3-cd)pyrene Although the emphasis is on avoiding exposure to PAHs, these molecules are useful for making medicines, plastics, dyes, and pesticides.

Friday, December 27, 2019

Race And The Human Genome Project - 788 Words

Race, such a subjective matter that most classify solely on observable traits based on traditional race concepts. However race exists in humans through cultural and biological concepts. In other words, race is based on its scientific meaning, which is taken from its visual and genetic signs of human variety. â€Å"After all it is an idea with a measurable past, identifiable present, and uncertain future†. St. A SHORT HISTORY OF THE RACE CONCEPT Michael Yudell, PhD, MPH. Through observing the human genome project that explores human molecular selves, skin color variation, and lastly race/human variation as a whole, a clear picture of race can be scientifically explained. The human genome project is a way of inspecting our molecular selves. There are three billions of letters that make up the DNA in the human genome that scientists have to study in order to understand our molecular cells. Furthermore, there are all distinct sets of genes that interact with environmental factors, which directly influence things like our physical appearance, personalities and risks for diseases. Geneticist, Jeffery C. Long â€Å"None of the observable traits that people associate with race are simple genetic traits. Complex traits are influenced by several genes as well as environment.† -Long, Jeffery C. RACE - Exploring Our Molecular Selves. RACE - Exploring Our Molecular Selves. N.p., n.d. Web. 30 Apr. 2015. Variation is the forefront for progression of a species. All species have wide varieties ofShow MoreRelatedEssay about Human Genome Project: We Are All One Race935 Words   |  4 Pagesknow that no matter how different we all are as humans; we are just a single race. The variations that we see in everyday life are just physical differences but genetically humans are the same and â€Å"race† is term that has been used to distinguish human because of those physical differences. You may be wondering how one person from Canada and one person from Africa the same race, but it has been proven through the HGP (Human Genome Project). This project was led by scientist from all walks of the earthRead MoreThe Human Genome Project?1023 Words   |  5 Pages The Human Genome Project Today we are learning the language in which God created life . . . humankind is on the verge of gaining immense new power to heal. Genome science will have a real impact on all our lives, and even more on the lives of our children. It will revolutionise the diagnosis, prevention, and treatment of most, if not all, human diseases. - Bill Clinton, June 2002. The Human Genome Project came into existence in the late 1980 s asRead More Morality And The Human Genome Project Essay1364 Words   |  6 Pages Morality and the Human Genome Project   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Does the Human Genome Project affect the moral standards of society? Can the information produced by it become a beneficial asset or a moral evil? For example, in a genetic race or class distinction the use of the X chromosome markers can be used for the identification of a persons ethnicity or class (Murphy,34). A seemingly harmless collection of information from the advancement of the Human Genome Project. But, lets assume this information isRead MoreThe Human Genome Project Essay examples1068 Words   |  5 PagesThe Human Genome Project (HGP), an international scientific research project, has educated the public tremendously on various topics concerning DNA and genetics. This study has been beneficial to communities alike. As stated, the HGP sought to identify all the genes in human DNA, determine the sequences of the three billion chemical base pairs that make up human DNA, store this information in databases, improve tools for data analysis, transfer related technologies to the private sector, and addressRead MoreThe Human Genome Project : How They Impact Human Society916 Words   |  4 PagesThe Human Genome Project is possibly the most important project in the world. Several companies and governments are involved with this project. The project has many goals but the main general goal is: to construct a detailed genetic and physical map of the human Genome, to determine the complete nucleotide sequence of human DNA, to localize the estimated 50,000-100,000 genes within the human Genome, and to perform similar analyses on the Genomes of several other organisms used extensively in researchRead More The Human Genome Project Essay941 Words   |  4 Pages The Human Genome Project is a worldwide research effort with the goal of analyzing the structure of human DNA and determining the location of the estimated 100,000 human genes. The DNA of a set of model organisms will be studied to provide the information necessary for understanding the functioning of the human genome. The information gathered by the human genome project is expected to be the source book for biomedical science in the twenty-first century and will be of great value to the field ofRead MoreEssay on The Human Genome Project1579 Words   |  7 Pages Does the Human Genome Project effect the moral standards of society? Can the information produced by it become a ben eficial asset or a moral evil? For example, X chromosome markers can be used to identify ethnicity. A seemingly harmless collection of information from the Human Genome Project. But lets assume this information is used to explore ways to deny entry into countries, determine social class, or who gets preferential treatment. Whether or not this type of treatment is acceptable to a moralRead MoreThe Benefits of Genetic Engineering Essay1459 Words   |  6 Pages Almost three decades ago, on July 25, 1978, Louise Brown, the first â€Å"test tube baby† was born (Baird 1). With this birth another controversy broke out, do humans have the right to make life? Most of the concern comes from the fear of control over the production and development of human beings. But, those who are against cloning would most likely look the other way if they needed gene therapy after receiving a grim diagnosis. There are many aspects of genetic engineering and to thoroughly understandRead MoreDeoxyribonucleic Acid, Or Dna Is A Genetic Code That Determines1279 Words   |  6 Pagesvery important for when it comes to transferring hereditary information. Hereditary material, or â€Å"information† is from the parents of the offspring. It is information passed down from generation to generation and makes the human race unique. Without unique DNA, the human race could become extinct in an instant. The discovery of the double helix structure of DNA was discovered by mainly by James Watson and Francis Crick. They basically solved the structure of DNA. This discovery marked a milestoneRead MoreThe Effects of the Human Genome Project on Society1697 Words   |  7 Pagesthe mapping of the human genome on society? Human genetics has remained a mysterious and spotty subject throughout history. The farther the human race advances, the more it learns and the more details it is able to clarify. Now, man has come to create a method of mapping out the complex and massive information stored within himself in order to better understand and further the health and lives of those around him. In the following text is explained the Human Genome Project, what it is and what

Thursday, December 19, 2019

Dr Ali Shariati And The Iranian Revolution - 1466 Words

Dr Ali Shariati is considered to be the ‘main ideologue’ of the Iranian revolution. Dr Shariati was in the same time a sociologist, a believer (of the revolutionary Shi’sm) and a lector for the masses. He has been arrested several times and prosecuted for his speeches and the works he published, all found highly uncomfortable for those in power. The main topic of most of his works is that a revolution was necessary in the less developed countries like Iran in order to gain freedom and independent and put an end to the ‘imperial domination’. The main principle of his thoughts is ‘tawhid’ – unity; His ideas was influencing a lot of his young followers. There are different opinions according to his views towards Marxism as some thinks he was against it and others that he was a true Marxist, hiding behind Islam. He was separating himself from clerical Islam by often criticizing ‘traditional ulama’ of betraying its initia l targets. This essay will be divided in three parts. First part will present a brief biography of Ali Shariati, the second will discuss his main views and ideas and his attitude towards Clericalism and Marxism. And the third will be an overview of his lectures and books, such as ‘Fatima is Fatima’; ‘Expectations for the Muslim Woman’; ‘Reflections of humanity’; and ‘Red Shi’ism (the religion of martyrdom) vs. Black Shi’ism (the religion of mourning)’. Dr Shariati was born in 1933 in Kahak Subzevar Iran. His father Mohammad Taqi Shariati coming from a familyShow MoreRelatedIr The Iranian Identity3660 Words   |  15 PagesImages from Iran: Iranian Identity in the Global World Globalization is defined as the ‘world becoming a small global village’ where all countries merge into a mosaic of one multicultural free communication of information village. Yet, if globalization is supposed to enhance the relationships between different cultures, making the whole world one nation, it drastically fails, due to the many differences between the world’s nations. Iran is one example of a country nation that has been detached fromRead MoreThe Roots of Islamic Revolution in Iran6710 Words   |  27 PagesROOTS OF IRANIAN REVOLUTION at 1979 Nail KAYAPINAR The objective of this paper is realize the main reasons of the Islamic Revolution in Iran in 1979 and see what is changed by revolution. In 1979, a drastic change has been occurred in Iran. It was a revolution in the true sense of the concept for its lust for justice, liberty and equality. It was also a popular uprising against imperialism of which all revolutions had the same stand. But it has also many novelties not to the theory, but for theRead More The Evolving Nexus between Islam and Iran Essay5554 Words   |  23 Pagesreligion, and revolution are unique in this Muslim country. Iranians, unlike many of their neighbors, hold on very strongly to their pre-Islamic roots and achievements; sentiments of nationalism are apparent throughout Iranian history and in the everyday conversations of Iranians. In order to illustrate the role of Islam in Iran and the contemporary Iranian situation, I will analyze the concept of an Islamic state, the legitimacy of Islam in modern-day Iran wit h notes on the Islamic Revolution of 1979